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Petra, the "Rose-red city" and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is a historic and archaeological city in the Jordan. Built in the 3rd century B.C. as the capital city of the Nabataeans, it is a symbol of Jordan as well as its most visited tourism attraction. The Nabateans carved palaces, temples, tombs, storerooms and stables from the rocky cliffs. From here they commanded the trade route from Damascus to Arabia, and through here the great spice, silk and slave caravans passed. With great success in commerce and development of skills, the Nabateans mastered hydraulic engineering, copper refining, stone carving and sculpture. There are over 800 registered sights in Petra including some 500 tombs. Archaeologists believe that it was several earthquakes, including a massive quake in AD 555 that forced the inhabitants to abandon the city.

The site remained unknown to the Western world until 1812, when it was introduced by Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt.

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